Archive for February, 2012

What is a Tree? How Does it Work?

Tree Physiology

A tree is a tall plant with woody tissue. Trees gather light for photosynthesis through their leaves; this process creates “food” for the tree.

Most of a tree trunk is dead tissue and serves only to support the weight of the tree crown. The outside layers of the tree trunk are the only living portion. The cambium produces new wood and new bark.

The band of tissue outside of the cambium is the phloem. Phloem transports new materials (the sugars created ...

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Planting Trees for Conservation

Trees can be planted for several conservation purposes. These include windbreaks and living snow fences, wildlife habitat and forest restoration.

Conservation Plantings: Planning, Design and Site Preparation

Conservation tree plantings can provide many benefits. However, successful plantings require well-defined objectives that help answer many questions.

Some factors to consider in planning a tree planting, whether in the mountains or on the plains or whether it is designed to control wind or snow, or benefit wildlife:

Tree plantings benefit land and people by:

Site Preparation

Site preparation ...

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Colorado’s Major Tree Species

Colorado’s major tree species include bristlecone pine, Colorado blue spruce, Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, limber pine, lodgepole pine, narrowleaf cottonwood, quaking aspen, piñon pine, plains cottonwood, ponderosa pine, Rocky Mountain juniper, subalpine fir and white fir.

Bristlecone Pine

Pinus aristata
Bark: Light gray and smooth when young; red-brown with irregular, scaly ridges when mature.
Leaves: Evergreen needles are dark with white lines, they have white pitch dots on both surfaces; to 1-inch long; crowded in a long, dense mass along the twig; generally ...

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Forestry and Wildfire Glossary

Abiotic Factors

The non-living components of the environment, such as air, rocks, soil, water, peat, and plant litter.


The establishment of trees on an area that has lacked forest cover for a very long time, or has never been forested.


A single layer of cells between the woody part of the tree and the bark. Division of these cells result in diameter growth of the tree through formation of wood cells (xylem) and inner bark (phloem).


The forest cover of branches and foliage formed ...

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Wood Utilization in Colorado

Healthy forests are vital to the long-term health of Colorado’s environment and economy. Forests provide clean water to Coloradans (and 18 other states) and filter our air. They also provide opportunities for recreation, including skiing, which is a $2 billion industry in our state.

However, these forests are threatened by diseases, fires and insects such as the mountain pine beetle. For instance, the mountain pine beetle will kill all of the mature ...

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Urban Forest Utilization

Urban Forest Utilization is an industry that is still in its infancy.  Not until the advent of smaller and portable bandmills in the last 30 years has milling lumber from urban trees been feasible.  If a tree was growing in someone’s back yard there is a chance there is some metal or other debris in it that would not make a traditional sawyer happy!  At TC Woods we just accept that every 5th or 10th log has metal in it ...

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How to Measure Trees and Logs

Selling timber without measuring the products is like selling livestock without weighing the animals. Knowing what you have to sell and securing several bids can mean many additional dollars from your timber sales. With the assistance of a professional forester, decide which trees are ready for market, then measure them and mark them with paint spots at breast height and below stump height. If the trees are already cut, scale the logs before they are sent to the mill.

The Missouri ...

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